Sunday, June 30, 2019

SoapUI Tutorial for Beginners (free version)

SoapUI is a a free open source tool to test web services. It can test both SOAP web services and RESTful web services. You can use SoapUI for both functional testing and performance testing of web services. Since SoapUI is written in Java, SoapUI is cross-platform meaning that it can run on multiple operating systems like Windows, Mac OS and Linux.

How to install SoapUI? The steps to install SoapUI free version are very simple. In order to install Soap ui tool, download the SoapUI installer from SoapUI official website. Double-click to run the installer. Select the destination folder, components, tutorials location, Start Menu folder and desktop icon and click Finish. You can see the actual installation of SoapUI on Windows and much more in my SoapUI tutorial for beginners. or read on...

Sunday, June 23, 2019

What is JSON

Every now and then, you must have heard the term, JSON. Let us learn JSON. The JSON full form is JavaScript Object Notation. It is a format for data exchange. Other data interchange formats are CSV and XML. There are several JSON data value types like String, Number, Object etc. View my 10-minute JSON tutorial or read more on JSON data examples...

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Web Services Tutorial

Let us start with an introduction to web services. What is web service? A web service is a software service provided by one device to another device using the web. Web services provide useful information like weather, stock market information, forex rates and many more. The web service runs as a software application on the web service provider. The technologies in which the web service provider and its' clients are written may be different. It does not matter because the communication between the web service provider and its' clients uses standard data formats like XML or JSON. Keep in mind that web services do not have a user interface.

What is Web Service

In the above example, a web server running on Linux provides a web service to a web server running on Windows, which then uses the response data in it's end-user interface. For this to happen, the web service client sends a request to the web service provider and the web service provider sends a response back to the web service client.

Want to learn more? View my 7-minute Web Services Tutorial or read on...

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Cause and Effect Analysis

Cause Effect diagram is a popular technique to establish the root cause(s) of a problem. A cause-and-effect diagram is a visual representation to find out one or more causes of a specific problem. It allows exploration of possible causes. People use it to correct defects in their products or services. Other names for the cause and effect diagram are cause effect graph, herringbone diagram, ishikawa diagram and fishikawa (because it looks like the bones of a fish).

Cause Effect Diagram Template

If you want to learn more, please see my cause effect video in my Software and Testing Training channel or read on...

Sunday, June 2, 2019

State Transition Testing Technique with Examples

State Transition Testing is a test design technique, which you can use to design test cases. Now, what is a state in state transition? A state is a particular condition in which the system under test can exist. A state A state has certain attributes or properties and it has a certain behavior. What is transition? A transition is movement from one valid (allowed) state to another valid state. These transitions are tested in state transition testing. View the detailed State Transition Testing tutorial or read on...

Light switch example State Diagram

Let us assume that a lighting system has a switch, an electric circuit and a light. As you can see in the state transition diagram above, there are only two valid states in which this system can exist - OFF and ON. In the OFF state, you can provide an input (turn switch on) to cause a transition to the ON state with the output that the light becomes on. In the ON state, you can provide an input (turn switch off) to cause a transition to OFF state with the output that the light becomes off. In state transition testing, you would test both these transitions i.e. OFF state to ON state and ON state to OFF state.

Car State Diagram example

Let us see another state transition example. The above diagram is also called the the State Graph or the State Chart or State Transition Chart or State Transition Graph. This diagram shows the four possible states of a car - Stopped, Accelerating, Constant Speed and Braking. From the Stopped state, the system can only change to the Accelerating state. From the Accelerating state, it is possible to change to the Constant Speed state and vice versa. From the Constant Speed state, it is possible to change the car to the Braking state and vice versa. From the Braking state, it is possible to change to the Accelerating state and vice versa. Also, from the Braking state, it is possible to change to the Stopped state. Therefore, there are 8 valid transitions (represented by 8 arrows) that you should test.

State Table and State Diagram are related. The same information is shown in the form of a state table or state transition table. The first 8 rows after the header are the valid transitions. The next 4 rows are the invalid transitions. You should also test the invalid transitions to ensure that they are impossible.

StateInputNext State
StoppedPress gas pedal Accelerating
AcceleratingKeep gas pedal constantConstant Speed
AcceleratingSwitch to brake pedalBraking
Constant SpeedPress gas pedal moreAccelerating
Constant SpeedSwitch to brake pedalBraking
BrakingSwitch to gas pedal; press gas pedal moreAccelerating
BrakingSwitch to gas pedalConstant Speed
BrakingKeep brakingStopped
Stopped?Constant Speed
Constant Speed?Stopped

You can design state transition testing test cases based on the state transition table. For example, you can write test cases based on the workflows as follows. Ensure that you cover each valid transition and each invalid transition.
Test case 1– Stopped | Accelerating | Constant Speed | Braking | Stopped
Test case 2– Stopped | Accelerating | Braking | Accelerating | Braking | Stopped
Test case 3 – Stopped | Accelerating | Constant Speed | Accelerating | Constant Speed | Braking | Constant Speed | Braking | Stopped
and so on.

I hope that you found the above state diagram examples understand state transition testing. If you want to learn more, you can view my State Transition Testing tutorial. I have explained the above concepts in greater detail in it.